Attention-deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is usually diagnosed in childhood and may persist into adulthood. ADHD is characterized by patterns of behaviour including inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.

General Behavioural Patterns of Students with ADHD


1. Inattention:

- Difficulties in sustaining attention in classes and tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (e.g. group projects, assignments)
- Struggles in following through with instructions
- Forgetful (e.g. miss deadlines)
- Weak in planning and organization (e.g. time management, organizing and prioritizing tasks and ideas)
- Weak in giving close attention to details

2. Hyperactivity and Impulsivity:

- Restless
- Excessive movements (e.g. fidgeting)
- Excessive talking
- Impatient
- Interruptive (e.g. interrupting conversations/discussions)
- Difficulties in regulating emotions


Useful Tips for Supporting Students with ADHD



1. Maintain eye contact during verbal instructions
2. Provide clear and concise instructions/directions
3. Break down complex requests/instructions in steps and stages


Inclusive Teaching:

1. Chunk a lecture into small sections (e.g. presentation, class discussions, interactive exercises, breaks in between)
2. Elaborate complex concepts with concrete examples
3. Present teaching materials in visuals (e.g. charts, videos)
4. Provide lecture materials prior to class to facilitate students’ preparation for class
5. Permit audio/video recordings of lectures to facilitate students’ revision/ learning after class
6. Provide visual reminders and cues for demonstration/ instructions
7. Discuss special learning and/or exam arrangements privately with students concerned
8. Acknowledge and show respect for diversity in learning needs


Assignment & Assessment:

1. Provide clear guidelines/instructions for individual and group assignments
2. Give regular alert of deadlines
3. Consider alternative assessment modes
4. Consider extensions in assignment deadlines
5. Consider extra time and supervised breaks in quizzes/tests/exams if necessary
6. Arrange a separate venue for quizzes/tests/exams if necessary
7. Divide the quiz/test/exam into different sections




1. Information on ADHD (National Institute of Mental Health, United States)

2. Inclusive Teaching for Students with ADHD (Australian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training, Australia)